Tool culture of Homo erectus and archaic H. sapiens. Pear-shaped hand axes.
Includes gorilla, orangutan, gibbon and chimpanzee. No tail, large brain; brachiating knuckle walkers.
Group of extinct omnivorous bipedal hominins. Includes A. anamensis, afarensis, africanus and some others.
Evolution of bone, muscle, physiology and inherited behaviour. To be distinguished from cultural evolution.
Walking on 2 legs. Only Australopithecus, Paranthropus and Homo genuses.
Swinging by arms as apes do.
Area of brain that produces speech.
Bony projection protecting eyes. Prominent in early hominins.
Tool used for making holes in skins, etc.
Buttress of bone on the base of the femur. Humans have this on the outer base and apes on the inner. It prevents collapse of the knee inwards.
Raised back of skull holding brain.
Evolution of culture (weapons, tools, art, music, ritual, etc.).
Gap between incisors and canines to allow for space for the large canines.
Early form of ape ancestral to both apes and humans.
Opening in the skull for attachment of the spinal cord.
Family that includes apes and humans.
Tribe (below subfamily) that includes humans and bipedal fossils like Australopithecus and Paranthropus. Also calledhominid.
Middle Stone Age, characterized by fishing and foraging for wild grains.
Tool culture of Neanderthals.
New Stone Age — age of agriculture.
Attachment at the back of the skull for attachment of neck muscles.
Tool culture of Homo habilis.
Old Stone Age.
Genus of vegetarian hominins includes P. aethiopicus, robustus and boisei.
Subfamily that contains orangutans.
Order that includes prosimians, monkeys, apes and humans.
Having a protruding muzzle.
Primitive monkey, eg lemur, loris, tarsier. Small, often solitary, nocturnal.
Rounded stone used for grinding grains into flour.
Bony projection on top of the cranium for attachment of chewing muscles.
The environmental factors that favour certain phenotypes over others. (See the chapter on Evolution for more on this.)
Where the male is larger and has structural differences from the female.
Culture of Homo sapiens.
Carrying angle; the angle, less than 180°, between the femur and tibia. It indicates bipedalism.
Area in the brain concerned with recognition of speech.
Bone structure on side of cheek through which the chewing muscles go.